Angola: new media law threatens free speech

Angolan President José Eduardo dos Santos should refuse to sign a new media law until parliament revises provisions restricting the right to freedom of expression, Human Rights Watch said. The law grants the government and ruling party expansive power to interfere with the work of journalists, and potentially to prevent reporting on corruption or human rights abuses.
Angola: new media law threatens free speechA number of the Press Law’s articles violate Angola’s international obligations to respect media freedom. Parliament passed the Press Law on November 18, 2016, with minimal debate, together with a new Television Law, Broadcast Law, Journalists Code of Conduct, and statutes of the recently established Angolan Regulatory Body for Social Communication (ERCA, Entidade Reguladora da Comunicação Social Angolana).

The five laws constitute what the government called the Social Communication Legislative Package (Pacote legislativo da comunicação social).

“Angola’s new media law is the latest threat to free expression and access to information in the country,” said Daniel Bekele, senior Africa advocacy director at Human Rights Watch. “President Dos Santos should uphold his commitment to human rights and refuse to sign these media restrictions into law.”

A number of the Press Law’s articles violate Angola’s international obligations to respect media freedom, Human Rights Watch said. These include:

Article 29 gives the Ministry of Social Communication the authority to oversee how media organisations carry out editorial guidelines and to punish violators with suspension of activities or fines.
Article 35 imposes excessive fees to establish a media group of 35 million kwanzas for a news agency (US$211,000) and 75 million kwanzas (US$452,000) for a radio station.
Article 82 criminalises publication of a text or image that is “offensive to individuals.” Under the penal code, defamation and slander are punishable with fines and imprisonment for up to six months.

The law’s overly broad definition of defamation opens the door for the government to arbitrarily prosecute journalists who report about illegal or improper activity by officials and others, Human Rights Watch said. Criminal defamation laws should be abolished entirely, as they are open to easy abuse and can result in harsh consequences, including imprisonment.

ECRA’s final draft statutes and the other media laws were unexpectedly put forward for discussion just days before their November 18 approval, catching many media professionals unaware. Journalists and media freedom activists have criticised the process as lacking consultation and transparency.

“We were never officially informed about dates of the discussion or approval of this law – not even during the discussion of details,” Teixeira Candido, the head of the Angolan Journalism Union, told Human Rights Watch.

Social media

Parliament approved the establishment of the regulatory body, together with the first drafts of the other four bills of the Social Communication Legislative Package, in August at the initiation of the ruling party, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), which controls roughly 80% of the assembly’s seats. The first draft gave the body the authority to “enforce compliance with professional journalistic ethics” and to issue licenses to journalists, which are required for them to work. After criticism from the Journalism Union, however, the government agreed to limit this authority to a new body controlled by media professionals.

Under the revised statute, six of the ERCA members are to be appointed jointly by the government and the party with the most seats in parliament. The journalism union nominates two members and the other political parties in parliament appoint the remaining three.

The new media laws follow government officials’ complaints about what they consider an irresponsible media, including social media. In December 2015, President Dos Santos said, “Social networks should not be used to violate other people’s rights, humiliate, slander or convey degrading or morally offensive content.”

After parliament passed the recent package of laws, Social Communication Minister José Luis de Matos told the media that the new media law would ensure that journalists take more responsibility for their work because they “cannot assume that they have the right to do what they want.”

Angolan political figures, including members of the government, have used the defamation provision of the old 2006 media law to crack down on critics. In 2008, Graça Campos, a journalist and editor of the weekly paper Angolense, was sentenced to a six-month suspended jail term for publishing articles accusing three former ministers of involvement in corruption.

In March 2011, Armando Chicoca, a correspondent for Voice of America, was sentenced to a year in jail for articles critical of a judge in Namibe province. In February 2014, Queirós Chilúvia, another journalist, was sentenced to a six-month suspended jail term for investigating screams and cries for help emanating from a police station. In May 2015, Rafael Marques, a prominent journalist, was given a six-month suspended jail term for revealing killings and torture in the country’s diamond fields.

Defamation laws

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights has long called for the abolition of criminal defamation laws on the continent, saying that they open the way to abuse and can result in very harsh consequences for journalists who expose abuses of power, corruption, and human rights violations, all of which are rife in Angola.

In 2013, in a landmark judgment Lohé Issa Konaté v. Burkina Faso, involving a criminal libel conviction of a Burkinabe journalist, the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights ruled that imprisonment for defamation violated the right to freedom of expression and that such laws should only be used in restricted circumstances. The court also ordered Burkina Faso to amend its criminal defamation laws.

After 40 years of independence, the Angolan media remains largely controlled by the MPLA. The government owns the only radio and television stations that broadcast across the entire country, as well as the official news agency.

Reporters Without Borders ranks Angola, 123rd out of 180, in its 2016 World Press Freedom Index. In August 2013, Human Rights Watch urged the government to repeal the country’s criminal defamation laws and stop using them to harass journalists.

“The predominance of the Angolan government and the most powerful political party undermine the independence of the journalism regulatory body and risks making it a mechanism for censorship and control rather than media freedom,” Bekele said. “Unless this new media law is revised, the precarious situation of the media in Angola will only get worse.”

Paradise lost: Navigating in search of a national moral compass

South Africa is in a state of ferment and the country is struggling to overcome a fractured political, economic, social and moral landscape. It is the social malaise of crime, in all its negative ramifications that unremittingly violates the majority of the population. On a daily basis we hear about the excesses of crime against person and property.
Ahmed Shaikh
Ahmed Shaikh
We are moving towards a state of anarchy and lawlessness where value for life is diminishing frighteningly and moral degeneration has surreptitiously snuck in through the back door to undermine the very foundations of the nation’s soul. We have lost our humanity, our streets and our neighbourhoods. We are in a perpetual state of déjà vu – we hear about crime, read about crime and have either experienced the horrors of crime first hand or know of someone or a close relative who was brutalised by violent crime. It has become a way of life, as morbid as it may seem. We are relentlessly enveloped by reports of criminal activity that at times leaves one feeling violated, exasperated, and desperate.

The critical question is what drives the criminal who has lost his or her moral bearing to commit crime, whether petty or violent? In a quest to respond to this rhetorical question and shed some light on the subject matter, I refer to a conversation I had with a colleague who left academia to find a niche in the corporate world dealing with white collar crime.

He related the story of a young recruit whom a corporate had hired. He had shown promise. Within a few months of settling into his position, the employee committed fraud and was the subject of an internal investigation. In an attempt to understand the mindset of the fraudster, my colleague began to delve into the background of the culprit, only to find that he was living a ‘high’ lifestyle. He was the owner of a new and well-known brand of car. The lifestyle audit revealed that the monthly payment of his car exceeded his monthly salary. His family background review also suggested that he had come from a ‘broken’ family and his life growing up was difficult, fraught with many socio-economic problems. My colleague then enquired whether the employee felt any remorse for the crime he had committed. His response was curt but telling. He replied that whilst he felt remorse for the misdeed he had committed, he needed to ‘live’ – similar to his peers and role models who were living the good life – in most cases, a lifestyle sponsored by the outcomes of crime.

My colleague’s prognosis for the fraudster’s future was even more worrying. He was of the opinion that the youngster was part of a ‘lost generation’ and that due to circumstances beyond his control he would most likely continue towards a life of criminal behavior. For example, in South Africa, a study conducted by the Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention showed that young people, who have been victims of crime were six times more likely to commit a crime than those who have not been victimised. Mamphela Ramphele in her book Laying Ghosts to Rest views this as living with ‘ghosts of the past’. The majority of the so called ‘lost generation’ is living with the horrors of the present. They are living against the backdrop of unemployment, poverty, hunger and countless social ills. According to Ramphele,” we are now living in a society permeated by a culture of egoism, personal entitlement, personal enrichment, corruption and moral relativism” where ubuntu has been thrown out of the proverbial door.

Reversing the decline of society as a force for moral regeneration and positive transformation will be exceptionally difficult. But since the youth and a promising future free from crime are ours to lose, they are also ours to reclaim. Our recent experience has shown that the destruction of the social and moral fabric of society through crime is easy. Its re-creation is much more difficult – it will take patience, tolerance and a concerted effort on the part of all concerned about the future of our country. There are no silver bullets.

Moreover, crime prevention measures with a strong focus on youth therefore have great potential to reduce violence and crime rates across society. By addressing the root causes of youth crime and strengthening young people’s resilience to risk factors, prevention efforts can reduce youth’s susceptibility to crime, and thus increase safety for all of society.

As much as the prevailing fractured social milieu of South Africa is disconcerting, in hope, I revert to the Chinese meaning of the word ‘crisis’ which also suggests ‘opportunity’. Whilst we may not be able to do much in terms of mitigating the trauma of the present generation’s past, we certainly should as parents, guardians, other concerned stakeholders, and civil society at large intervene in the education process in order to foster a moral and values-based civic education.

It is imperative as a nation to realise that civic and values-based education is essential to sustain our country’s future. The habits of the mind, as well as the habits of the heart are the dispositions that inform not only the democratic and human rights ethos of a country but also the intrinsic values of good citizenship. They are not simply inherited. Each new generation is a new cohort of population that must acquire intrinsic ethical and moral values and knowledge, learn the skills, and develop the traits of character that are underscored by a constitutional democracy. These dispositions must be fostered and nurtured by word and study and by the power of example. Democracy and respect for life, human rights and social justice must be consciously reproduced, generation after generation.

Civic and a values-based education, therefore, should be a prime concern in our education system – at all levels. There is no more important task than the development of an informed, effective, and responsible citizenry. Democracies are sustained by citizens who have the requisite knowledge, skills, dispositions and intrinsic values. It is critical, therefore, that parents, educators, and members of civil society make the case and demand for the support of civic and values-based education from all segments of society and from the widest range of institutions and governments. Failure to do so will condemn our nation to the backwaters of the global community.

As the late President of India, Dr. Abdul Kalam said, “If a country is to be corruption and crime free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher”.

Finally, this article has aimed to provide one response to the ongoing malaise of national crime and elaboration of some of the best ways to address the issue.

‘Dronejacking’ may be the next big cyber threat

WASHINGTON: A big rise in drone use is likely to lead to a new wave of “dronejackings” by cybercriminals, security experts warned on Tuesday.
‘Dronejacking’ may be the next big cyber threat
©goce risteski via 123RF
A report by Intel’s McAfee Labs said hackers are expected to start targeting drones used for deliveries, law enforcement or camera crews, in addition to hobbyists.

“Drones are well on the way to becoming a major tool for shippers, law enforcement agencies, photographers, farmers, the news media, and more,” said Intel Security’s Bruce Snell, in the company’s annual threat report.

Snell said the concept of dronejacking was demonstrated at a security conference last year, where researchers showed how someone could easily take control of a toy drone. “Although taking over a kid’s drone may seem amusing and not that big of an issue, once we look at the increase in drone usage potential problems starts to arise,” he said.

The report noted that many consumer drones lack adequate security, which makes it easy for an outside hacker to take control. Companies like Amazon and UPS are expected to use drones for package deliveries – becoming potential targets for criminals, the report said.

“Someone looking to ‘dronejack’ deliveries could find a location with regular drone traffic and wait for the targets to appear,” the report said.

“Once a package delivery drone is overhead, the drone could be sent to the ground, allowing the criminal to steal the package.”

The researchers said criminals may also look to steal expensive photographic equipment carried by drones, to knock out surveillance cameras used by law enforcement.

Intel said it expects to see dronejacking “toolkits” traded on “dark web” marketplaces in 2017. “Once these toolkits start making the rounds, it is just a matter of time before we see stories of hijacked drones showing up in the evening news,” the report said.

Other predictions in the report included a decrease in so-called “ransomware” attacks as defenses improve, but a rise in mobile attacks that enable cyber thieves to steal bank account or credit card information. The report also noted that cybercriminals will begin using more sophisticated artificial intelligence or “machine learning” techniques and employ fake online ads.

Tips To Find Best Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney

Finding an efficient Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney is no longer a difficult task today. This is because with the advent of the World Wide Web, you can find them online, right from the comforts of your home. This applies to everyone whether you want a criminal lawyer in Pennsylvania or in the nearby places. A skilled and experienced Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney can assure you justice in all kinds of situations. Therefore, how would you find experienced, knowledgeable and determined trial attorneys that cater aptly to your specific criminal defense and personal injury needs? The answer is simple go online.

Going Online:

Yes, going online is the answer. To find the choicest Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney, you just have to type the keywords and there you can access to all the attorneys including the Montgomery County Pa Dui Lawyers online. But then, how would you know that your choice of the Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney is right? The answer lies in the following lines.

Traits of an Expert Criminal Defense and Dui Lawyer :

Ensure that your Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney has years of proven courtroom experience and is recognized for quality throughout the state. He/she should recognize the importance being reliable for the client in the courtroom in representing all kinds of critical needs and win arguments, motions, trials and more. They should be skilled enough to cater to each matter in a diligent manner.

Moreover, the Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney you have chosen should have the necessary experience for successful representation of clients in a wide range of cases, from summary traffic offenses to first-degree murder trials and complex civil trials involving more than 50 million dollars in assets. Another significant facility a good criminal lawyer should have is to work together with the clients towards accomplishing their goals. This is indeed the foundation to winning each case.

Apart from having all these qualities, an unbeatable Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney should give importance to all legal matters irrespective of their magnitude. This would definitely open doors to referrals from existing clients. Coming to referrals, this is very essential when it comes to choosing reliable lawyers for your entire criminal and DUI related cases including searching for a Montgomery County Pa Dui Lawyer.

Remember all these when you search online for a result oriented Pennsylvania Criminal Defense Attorney to fulfill the requirements of all your criminal case needs and specifications.

Practice Areas Of A Competent Pennsylvania Criminal Lawyer

If you stay in Pennsylvania, you would know how difficult it is to find a competent criminal lawyer. The situation is even worse, with so many lawyers present in the county and all of them claiming to be the best. Do not worry, in this article, I would provide you tried and tested tips to find the best Pennsylvania Criminal Lawyer and also on what are the areas he/she should be able to handle.

Locating your Lawyer

The best way to find a criminal lawyer in Pennsylvania that suits your requirements is to go online. Locate one on the internet. Go for extensive research; never go by high claims that are too good to be true. The best way to get the services of a competent criminal defense lawyer is to go by recommendations of your friends/acquaintances that have actually availed the services of a reliable lawyer. Check for the degree of the lawyer, his/her years of experience. Most lawyers today have their individual websites, wherein they post case studies, which give you a fairly good idea of their past track record.

Areas Handled

A Pennsylvania criminal lawyer handles various sensitive cases from traffic tickets to murder trials and complex civil trials involving more than $50 million dollars in assets. Here are a few definite areas which they deal with:

DUI/DWI- Cases related to driving under the influence/Driving While Intoxicated.
Accelerated Rehabilitative Disposition- This relates to rehabilitating the offender, to dispose of charges promptly, and to eliminate the need for costly and time-consuming trials or other court proceedings

Felonies- This involves cases related to third degree murder, voluntary manslaughter, aggravated assault, kidnapping, rape and related issues like suicide abetment, homicide by vehicle, theft of trade secrets, bribery, and perjury. The punishment for these crimes depends on the degree of offense.

Misdemeanors- This too has been classified into three types based on the intensity of the crime. Misdemeanors include possessing instruments of crime, terroristic threats, to selling liquor to minors, and the punishment of course is different in different cases.

Homicide & Assault- This is a generic term that relates to murder, voluntary manslaughter, and involuntary manslaughter. And the verdict varies from one case to another. Similarly, assault relates to bodily harm caused to another person, which may range from simple assault to aggravated assault, in accordance to the degree of the injury. A Pennsylvania criminal lawyer can handle such cases with great ease.

Drug Charges- This is a serious offence in Pennsylvania, and a person may convicted of this charge if he/she possess drugs for personal consumption, or for delivering it to a third party. Accordingly, the verdicts vary from offense related to Acquisition of a Controlled Substance by Fraud under the Drug Act (which carries an offense gravity score the same as armed robbery) to a charge under the Pharmacy Act (which is a very minor offense).

There are many other areas that a reliable and efficient Pennsylvania Criminal Lawyer can offer your services in. all you have to do is find the right one for your purpose. The same also applies to Pennsylvania Personal Injury Lawyers, if you wish to get the best deals.

Don’t Let The Beer Do The Talking

It happens sometimes: you head out to the Rusty Nail for trivia night with your friends, and you have a little better time than you realized. Fortunately, no one got hurt; unfortunately for you, you got caught. In that moment, you probably couldn’t tell the difference between a DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) and a DWAI (Driving While Ability Impaired), but with any luck, you didn’t try to tell anyone anything until you contacted Clifton Park criminal defense lawyers.

Even if you’re to be charged with a DWAI, which is a traffic infraction instead of a criminal misdemeanor like a DWI, there are still serious repercussions if you’re convicted. For starters, the first conviction carries a minimum fine of $300 along with a suspension of your license for a minimum of 90 days. That’s not even to mention the inevitable and seemingly interminable spike in your insurance rates. There could even be jail time of up to 15 days. Will your job be waiting for you if you’re locked up for two weeks? You should also keep in mind that for a prosecutor to convict you of a DWAI, she only needs to prove that you were operating a motor vehicle on a New York road and were affected to any extent in your driving ability.

With those things in mind, the best thing you can do for yourself is talk to experienced Clifton Park criminal defense lawyers. Most will offer a free initial consultation to help sort out the facts of the case and determine the best course of action going forward. The attorneys can also help you understand the legal process so you don’t get tripped up with something procedural. If you decide to hire them, they may be able to get you a lighter sentence or even get the charges dropped. Remember, anyone who represents himself has a fool for a client.

Do You Need A Peronal Injury Attorney?

There are several circumstances when you might benefit from the help of a personal injury attorney. You might want an attorney if your insurance company makes settling a claim difficult or if your situation involves a unique and complex rule regarding your claim. You might consider an attorney if you suffer from substantial injuries that are beyond what might be viewed as a normal range. Whatever you decide to do, the following situations and injuries almost always benefit from having a skilled attorney found on a website like www.legerlawpittsburgh.com.

Medical Malpractice

If you have an illness or injury due to the result of a healthcare provider’s negligence or incompetence, the legalities are complicated. An attorney has experience with the medical questions and with the courts in these types of situations. They are familiar with the complex issues surrounding medical malpractice cases.

Severe Personal Injury

In most personal injury claims, the amount of money you are paid out from a settlement is determined by how extensive your injuries are. You might have past and possible future medical bills, lost wages, or an inability to work anymore. All of these things must be taken into consideration and an attorney can help you get compensated at the higher end of the range.

Catastrophic Injury

A catastrophic injury is a life-altering injury with a severe injury to the brain, spine, or spinal cord. This type of injury permanently inhibits a person from performing any gainful work. This type of case requires complicated medical evidence as well as complex financial calculations. A capable attorney will be best for helping you figure out how much money you need to live out the rest of your life.

For help in deciding whether or not you need a personal injury attorney, visit a website like www.legerlawpittsburgh.com for more information.

Pennsylvania Criminal Attorney Interesting Knowledge Base

I am sure your quest for pennsylvania criminal attorney has come to an end as you read this article. Yes, gone are those days when we have to search endlessly for pennsylvania criminal attorney information or other such information like business lawyers, criminal attorney miami, fort criminal lawyer or even traffic lawyer. Even without articles such as this, with the Internet all you have to do is log on and use any of the search engines to find the pennsylvania criminal attorney information you need.

Proof beyond a reasonable doubt and innocent until proven guilty? Are terms that most people have heard before but the full gravity of these words isn’t felt unless they have faced trouble with the law? Failing to hire an experienced criminal law attorney could jeopardize your innocence and ability to present an effective defense in court.

There is also needed to appoint an attorney if you have your business in one state but doing it in some other state. Incorporate attorneys provide advice on corporate legal issues.

The second is substantive criminal law. The substantive law primarily emphasizes upon the crime and appropriate punishment. A criminal defense attorney is involved in the substantive section and represents the people accused of any crime. After being hired by their clients, they begin their job. If the accused individual is not financially capable enough to afford a defense attorney, the court appoints an attorney to represent them. After being appointed, they proceed with meeting their clients first to gather details about the event from the clients’ perspective. Until and unless their clients admit guilt, they do not hand their clients over and continue aiding their clients with the legal support to achieve courtroom success in the end.

Many people forget that they can get more information about any subject matter, be it pennsylvania criminal attorney information or any other on any of the major search engines. If you need more information about pennsylvania criminal attorney, and be more informed.

Los Angeles Criminal Attorney Ramiro J. Luis is a very popular criminal attorney in Southern California for a number of different reasons, but the main one is that they are respected and have a reputation in the court systems of delivering top notch legal representation. With all the high profile cases that seem to originate in Los Angeles you will get some of the best attorneys in the country. With crime rates soaring no matter where you live and criminal cases being brought to court more often, getting the best legal representation is something that you should always strive for. Los Angeles Criminal Attorney Ramiro J. Luis is just one choice you will have to help you with your criminal case.

Have you ever considered the sorry state of our court system? Have you ever considered that indeed we have tons of criminals who are above the law, yet supposed to be supporting it? Consider if you will; who is Worse Criminal Defense Attorneys or District Attorneys?

The second you are charged or know that you are going to be charged with a serious crime, life as you know will be different. Unless you’re a career criminal, you will have no idea what’s going on. A team of criminal defense attorneys will enable you to have at least one attorney at your side during the arraignment, that way someone will always be with you to answer any question you may have and explain what is going on. They also realize that you may need them any time of the day or night, so one attorney at least will be available to you at all times. Hiring only one defense attorney probably means you are not his only client (if he or she is any good anyway), and you may feel at times that not everything is being done that should be done to get you cleared from this case.

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Pennsylvania Criminal Attorney Significant Info

It’s difficult to provide accurate pennsylvania criminal attorney information, but we have gone through the rigor of putting together as much pennsylvania criminal attorney related information as possible. Even if you are searching for other information somehow related to civil litigation, child custody, indiana criminal attorney or deportation defense attorney this article should help a great deal.

An orange county criminal defense lawyers play the dominant role in the market. Criminal lawyers play the essential role in the market and huge number of clients who are involved in the activity of criminal. The responsibility of criminal defense lawyers pertains to be higher. An orange county criminal defense attorney provides excellent services to the client for reasonable prices. Criminal defense lawyers are available in more numbers, and they provide service with regards to proper guidance and profession. An orange county criminal attorney will handle all kinds of criminal cases of the state clients.

First, the criminal defense attorney you retain or who is assigned to you, should be well versed in criminal law. He or she has not only gone to law school and passed the bar examination, but if she practices regularly in the criminal courts, she will know the ins and outs of daily practice.

The first type of criminal law involves criminal procedures. This section implies the undertaking of trials in the court. A criminal trial attorney takes care of how to conduct trial periods in the courts. This procedure further defines ways in which the claims can be investigated. It also dictates procedures of collecting facts and evidences. Usually, the attorney who takes over the job of gathering evidences is a defense attorney.

If as related to pennsylvania criminal attorney as this article is and it still doesn’t answer all your needs, then don’t forget that you can conduct more search on any of the major search engines to get more helpful pennsylvania criminal attorney information.

No matter what criminal charges you could be facing, getting proper representation is something that you always want to have. Most people think they can face the charges on their own and save money, but in the reality this could be a very costly mistake. Such people as the Los Angeles criminal attorney has plenty of experience to handle these types of cases and will be best serving you in this capacity.

There are many experienced criminal attorneys. Their job involves meticulously preparing cases considering the risks of trial that may happen in each case. Their wide experience in an intricate state as well as federal criminal affairs in San Antonio will help a lot.

A good criminal attorney will represent the accused to the best of his or her ability. They can negotiate with prosecutors, and arrange for reduced charges or lesser sentencing. People who have been recently arrested need to talk to a criminal attorney as soon as possible. Typically, a criminal lawyer’s most urgent priority is to help arrange for the release of his defendant.

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Enjoy The Pennsylvania Wine Tours

Pennsylvania is not somewhere that you would expect to find wine or wine tours for that matter if you do not know that much about wine in the first place. The majority of people that drink wine only think of wine centres as places like California, Australia, France, Italy and so on. Pennsylvania wine tours would not even enter their conscious. However, Pennsylvania wine tours have a unique and distinctive history that should be explored to its fullest extent. Pennsylvania wine began to filter into the common market when the Farm Winery Act was passed in 1978, but it has been made there since the 1600s. Pennsylvania is in fact the first place in the United States that began to process grapes for wine and should be treated with reverence. You should take one of the many Pennsylvania wine tours at least once in your life!

The first commercial vineyard in Pennsylvania was established in 1793, although it was not until much later that Pennsylvania wine tours actually came about. The wine producers were initially beset with a variety of problems. Everything from crop failure to grape varieties not taking to the earth properly. As a result, the wine industry of the 1800s was more or less defunct with no hope of revival. There were still some growers determined to make a go of it though, and a good job too because Pennsylvania wine tours would not be a part of the modern day culture otherwise.

Pennsylvania wine tours actually became pretty much established in the mid 1800s. They actually came about when an absolute genius decided to try the landscape of the lakes for wine growing. The vineyards around Lake Eerie were planted in the mid 19th Century after the Eerie canal was built for irrigation purposes and Pennsylvania has never looked back. The first winery in the region, which is now a staple part of Pennsylvania wine tours, was the South Shore Wine Cellar. As the region is now conservative in nature and does not really produce wine to the extent that it did some years ago, it is generally off limits to the Pennsylvania wine tours. You can however see the region from the comfort of a car or a bus.

It has only been in the last thirty years or so, since 1978, that wine production in Pennsylvania has begun to flourish. It is only since the early 1980s that Pennsylvania wine tours have been established and have risen dramatically in popularity ever since. The weather and general environment of the region lends itself to great production of grapes and thus also of wine. The growth of the industry has been magnificent since then and over 90 wineries are now included in the Pennsylvania wine tours for you to look round and fully appreciate just how much it has all grown in the last few years. Indeed, some of the wineries actually produce fruit wines unheard of in other wineries across the country. This will definitely enhance your experience of the Pennsylvania wine tours

Pennsylvania wine tours can show you a top ten wine-producing region in the United States. You can find a huge variety of wine types in Pennsylvania and try the various types as a part of Pennsylvania wine tours. Whatever wine you are looking for, the likelihood is that you will find it here. Pennsylvania wine tours will give you a new and unique experience so be sure to book on one as soon as you can!